Dating in the 21st century is by far

More importantly, food-processing procedures were developed, particularly following the Industrial Revolution, which allowed for quantitative and qualitative food and nutrient combinations that had not previously been encountered over the course of hominin evolution.

In contrasting pre- and postagricultural diets, it is important to consider not only the nutrient qualities and types of foods that likely would have been consumed by preagricultural hominins but to also recognize the types of foods and their nutrient qualities that could not have been regularly consumed before the development of agriculture, industrialization, and advanced technology.

Ground stone mortars, bowls, and cup holes first appeared in the Upper Paleolithic (from 40000 y ago to 12000 y ago) (29), whereas the regular exploitation of cereal grains by any worldwide hunter-gatherer group arose with the emergence of the Natufian culture in the Levant ≈13000 BP (30).

Domestication of emmer and einkorn wheat by the descendants of the Natufians heralded the beginnings of early agriculture and occurred by 10–11000 BP from strains of wild wheat localized to southeastern Turkey (31).

Hence, as was the case with dairy foods, before the Epi-Paleolithic (10000–11000 y ago) and Neolithic (10000 to 5500 y ago) periods, there was little or no previous evolutionary experience for cereal grain consumption throughout hominin evolution.Fifty million Americans are hypertensive; 11 million have type 2 diabetes, and 37 million adults maintain high-risk total cholesterol concentrations (240 mg/d L) (15).In postmenopausal women aged ≥50 y, 7.2% have osteoporosis and 39.6% have osteopenia (16).From the Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins (LC); the Departments of Radiology and Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta (SBE); the Department of Medicine and UCSF/Moffitt General Clinical Research Center, University of California, San Francisco (AS); the Department of Food Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia (NM); the Department of Medicine, Lund University, Sweden (SL); the Department of Food Science, Lipid Chemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (BAW); the Mid America Heart Institute, Cardiovascular Consultants, Kansas City, MO (JHO); and the Human Nutrition Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Sydney, Australia (JB-M)There is growing awareness that the profound changes in the environment (eg, in diet and other lifestyle conditions) that began with the introduction of agriculture and animal husbandry ≈10000 y ago occurred too recently on an evolutionary time scale for the human genome to adjust.In conjunction with this discordance between our ancient, genetically determined biology and the nutritional, cultural, and activity patterns of contemporary Western populations, many of the so-called diseases of civilization have emerged.

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