Roman dating kalends
Obviously, the month beginning shifts forward (from the new moon, to the third quarter, to the full moon, to the first quarter, back the new moon) after intercalation. The nundinal cycle formed one rhythm of day-to-day Roman life; the market day was the day when country people would come to the city, and the day when city people would buy their eight days' worth of groceries.
In the earliest times, the three reference dates were probably declared publicly, when appropriate lunar conditions were observed. Other days were denoted by ordinal number, counting back from a named reference day. = on the third day before the November Kalends = 30 October. For this reason, a law was passed in 287BC (the Lex Hortensia) that forbade the holding of meetings of the comitia (for example to hold elections) on market days, but permitted the holding of legal actions.
Of the 11 months with an odd number of days, four had 31 days each and seven had 29 days each: As the twentieth year takes place nineteen years after the first year, this seems to indicate that a Metonic cycle was applied to Numa's calendar, and thus that, in addition to the 355-days (lunar) years, 7 intercalary months were inserted in each 19 (solar) years period.
In 304 BC Gnaeus Flavius, a pontifical secretary, introduced a series of reforms.
BC), a Roman calendar from before the Julian reform, with the seventh and eighth months still named Quintilis ("QVI") and Sextilis ("SEX"), and the intercalary month ("INTER") in the far righthand column (see enlarged) The Roman calendar changed its form several times between the founding of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire.
The remaining six months were named with respect to their position on the calendar: the numbers five to ten in Latin being quinque, sex, septem, octo, novem and decem, the months were named Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, and December.Further reforms were attributed, again without firm evidence, to Numa Pompilius, the second of the seven traditional kings of Rome.The Romans considered even numbers to be unlucky, so Numa took one day from each of the six months with 30 days, reducing the number of days in the 10 previously defined months by a total of six days.The second part of February was incorporated in the intercalary month as its last five days, with no change either in their dates or the festivals observed on them.This follows naturally from the fact that the days after the Ides of February (in an ordinary year) or the Ides of Intercalaris (in an intercalary year) both counted down to the Kalends of March. In detail, the system worked as follows: Months were grouped in days such that the Kalends was the first day of the month, the Ides was the 13th day of short months, or the 15th day of long months, and the Nones was the 9th day (counted inclusively) before the Ides (i.e., the fifth or seventh day of the month).